Ceramic Capacitors. M39014 Datasheet
MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS/AXIAL
& RADIAL LEADED
Multilayer ceramic capacitors are available in a
variety of physical sizes and configurations, including
leaded devices and surface mounted chips. Leaded
styles include molded and conformally coated parts
with axial and radial leads. However, the basic
capacitor element is similar for all styles. It is called a
chip and consists of formulated dielectric materials
which have been cast into thin layers, interspersed
with metal electrodes alternately exposed on opposite
edges of the laminated structure. The entire structure is
fired at high temperature to produce a monolithic
block which provides high capacitance values in a
small physical volume. After firing, conductive
terminations are applied to opposite ends of the chip to
make contact with the exposed electrodes.
Termination materials and methods vary depending on
the intended use.
Ceramic dielectric materials can be formulated with
a wide range of characteristics. The EIA standard for
ceramic dielectric capacitors (RS-198) divides ceramic
dielectrics into the following classes:
Class III: General purpose capacitors, suitable
for by-pass coupling or other applications in which
dielectric losses, high insulation resistance and
stability of capacitance characteristics are of little or
no importance. Class III capacitors are similar to Class
Class I: Temperature compensating capacitors, II capacitors except for temperature characteristics,
suitable for resonant circuit application or other appli- which are greater than ± 15%. Class III capacitors
cations where high Q and stability of capacitance char- have the highest volumetric efficiency and poorest
acteristics are required. Class I capacitors have stability of any type.
predictable temperature coefficients and are not
affected by voltage, frequency or time. They are made
from materials which are not ferro-electric, yielding
superior stability but low volumetric efficiency. Class I
capacitors are the most stable type available, but have
the lowest volumetric efficiency.
KEMET leaded ceramic capacitors are offered in
the three most popular temperature characteristics:
C0G: Class I, with a temperature coefficient of 0 ±
30 ppm per degree C over an operating
temperature range of - 55°C to + 125°C (Also
known as “NP0”).
Class II: Stable capacitors, suitable for bypass
X7R: Class II, with a maximum capacitance
or coupling applications or frequency discriminating
change of ± 15% over an operating temperature
circuits where Q and stability of capacitance char-
range of - 55°C to + 125°C.
acteristics are not of major importance. Class II
Z5U: Class III, with a maximum capacitance
capacitors have temperature characteristics of ± 15%
change of + 22% - 56% over an operating tem-
or less. They are made from materials which are
perature range of + 10°C to + 85°C.
ferro-electric, yielding higher volumetric efficiency but
less stability. Class II capacitors are affected by Specified electrical limits for these three temperature
temperature, voltage, frequency and time.
characteristics are shown in Table 1.
SPECIFIED ELECTRICAL LIMITS
Dissipation Factor: Measured at following conditions.
C0G – 1 kHz and 1 vrms if capacitance >1000pF
1 MHz and 1 vrms if capacitance 1000 pF
X7R – 1 kHz and 1 vrms* or if extended cap range 0.5 vrms
Z5U – 1 kHz and 0.5 vrms
Dielectric Stength: 2.5 times rated DC voltage.
Insulation Resistance (IR): At rated DC voltage,
whichever of the two is smaller
Temperature Characteristics: Range, °C
Capacitance Change without
* MHz and 1 vrms if capacitance 100 pF on military product.
(3.5% @ 25V)
Pass Subsequent IR Test
1,000 M F
or 100 G
1,000 M F
or 100 G
1,000 M F
or 10 G
-55 to +125
0 ± 30 ppm/°C
-55 to +125
+ 10 to +85
4 © KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300
APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER
The fundamental electrical properties of multilayer
ceramic capacitors are as follows:
Polarity: Multilayer ceramic capacitors are not polar,
and may be used with DC voltage applied in either direction.
Rated Voltage: This term refers to the maximum con-
tinuous DC working voltage permissible across the entire
operating temperature range. Multilayer ceramic capacitors
are not extremely sensitive to voltage, and brief applications
of voltage above rated will not result in immediate failure.
However, reliability will be reduced by exposure to sustained
voltages above rated.
Capacitance: The standard unit of capacitance is the
farad. For practical capacitors, it is usually expressed in
microfarads (10-6 farad), nanofarads (10-9 farad), or picofarads
(10-12 farad). Standard measurement conditions are as
Class I (up to 1,000 pF):
Class I (over 1,000 pF):
1MHz and 1.2 VRMS
1kHz and 1.2 VRMS
1 kHz and 1.0 ± 0.2 VRMS.
1 kHz and 0.5 ± 0.1 VRMS.
The variation of a capacitor’s impedance with frequency
determines its effectiveness in many applications.
Dissipation Factor: Dissipation Factor (DF) is a mea-
sure of the losses in a capacitor under AC application. It is the
ratio of the equivalent series resistance to the capacitive reac-
tance, and is usually expressed in percent. It is usually mea-
sured simultaneously with capacitance, and under the same
conditions. The vector diagram in Figure 2 illustrates the rela-
tionship between DF, ESR, and impedance. The reciprocal of
the dissipation factor is called the “Q”, or quality factor. For
convenience, the “Q” factor is often used for very low values
of dissipation factor. DF is sometimes called the “loss tangent”
or “tangent ␦”, as derived from this diagram.
Like all other practical capacitors, multilayer ceramic
capacitors also have resistance and inductance. A simplified
schematic for the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1.
Other significant electrical characteristics resulting from
these additional properties are as follows:
C = Capacitance
L = Inductance
R = Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR)
R = Insulation Resistance (IR)
Impedance: Since the parallel resistance (Rp) is nor-
mally very high, the total impedance of the capacitor is:
Z = RS2+ (XC - XL)2
Where Z = Total Impedance
RS = Equivalent Series Resistance
XC = Capacitive Reactance
XL = Inductive Reactance = 2πfL
Insulation Resistance: Insulation Resistance (IR) is the
DC resistance measured across the terminals of a capacitor,
represented by the parallel resistance (Rp) shown in Figure 1.
For a given dielectric type, electrode area increases with
capacitance, resulting in a decrease in the insulation resis-
tance. Consequently, insulation resistance is usually specified
as the “RC” (IR x C) product, in terms of ohm-farads or
megohm-microfarads. The insulation resistance for a specific
capacitance value is determined by dividing this product by
the capacitance. However, as the nominal capacitance values
become small, the insulation resistance calculated from the
RC product reaches values which are impractical.
Consequently, IR specifications usually include both a mini-
mum RC product and a maximum limit on the IR calculated
from that value. For example, a typical IR specification might
read “1,000 megohm-microfarads or 100 gigohms, whichever
Insulation Resistance is the measure of a capacitor to
resist the flow of DC leakage current. It is sometimes referred
to as “leakage resistance.” The DC leakage current may be
calculated by dividing the applied voltage by the insulation
resistance (Ohm’s Law).
Dielectric Withstanding Voltage: Dielectric withstand-
ing voltage (DWV) is the peak voltage which a capacitor is
designed to withstand for short periods of time without dam-
age. All KEMET multilayer ceramic capacitors will withstand a
test voltage of 2.5 x the rated voltage for 60 seconds.
KEMET specification limits for these characteristics at
standard measurement conditions are shown in Table 1 on
page 4. Variations in these properties caused by changing
conditions of temperature, voltage, frequency, and time are
covered in the following sections.
© KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300